Ukuqonda iiNdlela zokuKhetha zeShedyuli yesitofu sokugonya ebuntwaneni

Ugonyo lwabantwanaIxesha lokuqala uninzi lwabantu baseMelika lucinga ukuba izitofu zokugonya zabantwana zingaphezulu kweentsana ezikhalayo kunye neenaliti ezothusayo kuxa abeendaba bangena kwisiphithiphithi malunga namabango okuba isitofu sokugonya esekwe kwimekyuri sibangele i-autism.

Ngokutsho kwamaZiko oLawulo lweSifo kunye noThintelo (CDC), ezo mabango ziye zachithwa ngophando, kwaye i-mercury isusiwe phantse kuzo zonke izitofu zokugonya, kodwa iinkxalabo malunga nokhuseleko lokugonywa zihlala.

Ngo-2007, uGqr Robert Sears wapapasha Incwadi yesitofu: Ukwenza Isigqibo esiLungileyo soMntwana wakho , ejonge ukujongana nezona nkxalabo zinkulu zabazali abafuna indawo ephakathi phakathi kweshedyuli esemthethweni yesitofu sokugonya se-CDC kwaye bangafumani naluphi na ugonyo kwaphela. Incwadi kaGqr. Sears iquka into ayibiza ngolunye ucwangciso lwesitofu sokugonya, evumela ukudutyulwa okumbalwa kutyelelo ngalunye kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ityhalela ngasemva amayeza athile okugonya iinyanga okanye iminyaka emva kwezindululo zeshedyuli esemthethweni.

Ngaphambi kokuba uthathe isigqibo malunga nogonyo, funda malunga nezifo ezizithintelayo.

Funda ngogonyo kunye nezifo ezizithintelayo.



IHep B kunye neHep A
Ugonyo lwenziwa ukuthintela iintlobo ezimbini ze-hepatitis, i-A kunye ne-B. I-Hepatitis ichaphazela isibindi kwaye idluliselwa ngolwelo lomzimba-ingakumbi ngesondo, i-fecal matter, iinaliti zokwabelana okanye ukusuka kumama ukuya emntwaneni. IHepatitis B ixhaphake kakhulu kwaye iyabulala. Kwiimeko ezincinci, kunokuhlala iiveki ezimbalwa. Kwiimeko ezinzima, kunokukhokelela kwisifo sesibindi kunye nokufa. Phakathi kwama-800,000 kunye ne-1.4 yezigidi zabantu baseMelika banale ntsholongwane, kwaye abangama-2,000 ukuya kuma-3,000 bafa ngayo nyaka ngamnye.



I-DTaP
Ifoto ye-DTaP iqulethe izitofu ezininzi zokugonya. I-DTaP imele i-diphtheria, i-tetanus kunye ne-pertussis. Ngenxa yemigaqo-nkqubo yokugonya, i-diphtheria ayiqhelekanga eUnited States. Isasazeka ngokukhawuleza, isuka kwinto enokuthi iphosakele njengomqala obuhlungu okanye umkhuhlane ukuya kwinto ebaluleke kakhulu-imiqondiso yokothuka kunye neengxaki ezisongela ubomi. Iibhaktheriya zeTetanus zinokubangela usulelo olukhokelela kwi-spasms yemisipha kunye nokutshixa. I-Pertussis, ebizwa ngokuba yi-whooping cough, lusulelo lokuphefumla. Sesinye sezona zizathu ziphambili zokusweleka okuthintelekayo kugonyo kwihlabathi liphela-kwaye umngcipheko wokufa kwiintsana ezisanda kuzalwa uphezulu kakhulu.



MMR
Njenge-DTaP, le shot inye iqulethe izitofu ezintathu zokugonya imasisi, uqwilikana kunye nerubella. I-CDC ithi imasisi sesona sigulo sibulalayo sabantwana esibangela umkhuhlane kunye nerhashalala. Uqwilikana lubangela umkhuhlane, intloko ebuhlungu, ukudinwa kunye nokudumba kwamadlala entanyeni—kodwa kunqabile ukuba uqhubele phambili ukuya kukudumba okuqatha. I-Rubella ibangela umkhuhlane kunye nerhashalala enokuhlala iintsuku ezimbini ukuya kwezintathu. Iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga kwesi sitofu sokugonya ziquka umkhuhlane, irhashalala, i-malaise kunye neentlungu zamalungu. Isitofu sokugonya sasingumxholo wempikiswano yeminyaka elishumi kubanga ukuba yabangela i-autism kwabanye abantwana, nto leyo ekhokelela abazali abaninzi ukuba baluphephe ugonyo. Uqhambuko lwakutsha nje lwemasisi kunye noqwilikana luxelwe kumazwe afana ne-United States, Canada, Japan kunye ne-United Kingdom.

I-Rotavirus
Ngokutsho kweCDC, i-rotavirus yimbangela eqhelekileyo yorhudo olubi ebantwaneni, okukhokelela ekufeni kwabantwana abangama-600,000 emhlabeni wonke ngonyaka. Ngaphambi kokuba isitofu sokugonya siqaliswe ngo-2006, iintsana ezingaphezu kwama-200,000 zaseMelika zathatyathwa kumagumbi angxamisekileyo ngenxa yokusuleleka kwi-rotavirus.

I-PVC
Isitofu sokugonya i-pneumococcal conjugate silwa neebhaktheriya ezibangela inyumoniya yepneumococcal (xa ibhaktheriya ingena emiphungeni), i-bacteremia (xa ingena egazini) kunye ne-meningitis (xa ifika kwindawo yobuchopho). I-CDC ibika ukuba sesinye sezona zizathu zixhaphakileyo zezifo ezithintelwa ngogonyo eMelika.

Hib
Ibhaktiriya ye-Haemophilus influenzae yohlobo B yayikade ingunobangela ophambili wosulelo lwegazi lomntwana, inyumoniya kunye ne-meningitis. I-Hib inokukhokelela ekudumbeni emqaleni, umongo wethambo, amalunga kunye nezicubu ezixhumeneyo. Emva kokwaziswa kwesitofu sokugonya, usulelo lwe-Hib lwehlile ngeepesenti ezingama-99.

MCV4
Ngelixa kukho izitofu ezimbini ezichasene nezifo ze-meningococcal, i-MPSV4 kunye ne-MCV4, i-MCV4 isetyenziswa kakhulu. Ngaphandle kokugonywa, izifo ze-meningococcal zingabangela i-meningitis (ukuvuvukala komgangatho okhuselayo ojikeleze ingqondo kunye nomqolo) kunye ne-sepsis (usulelo lwegazi). Abo basemngciphekweni wokosuleleka babandakanya abafundi beekholeji, abaqeshwa emkhosini okanye nabani na ohlala kufutshane nabanye abantu. Usulelo lweMeningococcal lunezinga lokufa elisusela kwi-10 ukuya kwi-14 leepesenti, kwaye phakathi kwe-10 ne-19 lepesenti yabasindileyo bafumana iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga ezimandundu eziquka ukungeva, ukunqunyulwa kwamalungu kunye nokonakala kwengqondo. I-CDC iphanda iingxelo zolutsha oluthe, emva kokufumana isitofu sokugonya i-MCV4, lufumene i-Guillain-Barré syndrome-isifo esizimelayo. Idatha ibonisa ukuba kunokwenyuka okuncinci komngcipheko kwisitofu sokugonya ngokunxulumene ne-Guillain-Barré syndrome, kodwa i-CDC icebisa oogqirha ukuba baxelele abazali ngophando ngaphambi kokugonywa.

Ipoliyo
Ugonyo lwepoliyo ngomnye wemimangaliso yokwenyani yenzululwazi yanamhlanje. Ebutsheni benkulungwane yama-20, ipoliyo yabulala okanye yenza imilwelwe amakhulu amawaka abantu, abamalunga nama-20 000 abantu abafe amalungu omzimba ngonyaka eUnited States. Ngokuphuhliswa kwezitofu kwi-1950 kunye ne-1960, isifo sele sipheliswe ngokupheleleyo e-United States. Ngelixa ipoliyo ingaseyongozi enkulu e-United States, isitofu sokugonya-abantwana baseMelika ngoku bafumana isitofu sokugonya esingasebenziyo, okanye i-IPV-isacetyiswa. Ngowe-1988, iNdibano yezeMpilo yeHlabathi yavuma ukuphelisa ipoliyo kwilizwe ngalinye. Olo thumo luye lwaba yimpumelelo, kodwa alikagqibi—amazwe amane asachaza abantu abanepoliyo. Ukuyeka ugonyo ngoku kunokuvumela ukuphinda kuqale kwihlabathi jikelele.

HPV

Elona litsha logonyo lwabantwana, isitofu sokugonya i-human papillomavirus, siyacetyiswa kumantombazana afikisayo kwiminyaka eyi-11 okanye eli-12. Intsholongwane ye-HPV isoloko ikhona kwiimeko zomhlaza womlomo wesibeleko-obizwa ngokuba 'ngumhlaza othe cwaka' kuba amaxesha amaninzi awubikho. Ifunyanwe de isasazeke kwaye ibeka ubomi esichengeni.

Funda ukuba kutheni olu gonyo luyimpikiswano kwabanye abazali.

Umkhuhlane
Abantwana ngokuqhelekileyo baqala ukufumana isitofu sokugonya umkhuhlane wonyaka-ukudubula komkhuhlane wonyaka-emva kokuba ubuncinane beenyanga ezi-6 ubudala. Ngenxa yokuba uhlobo lomkhuhlane lutshintsha minyaka le, ukudubula okutsha kuya kufuneka minyaka le. Izithonga zomkhuhlane ziqhele ukufumaneka ukuqala ngoSeptemba. Ngenxa yobuthathaka bamajoni omzimba kunye nonxibelelwano olusondeleyo lwezikolo, kucetyiswa ukuba abantwana bafumane izithonga zomkhuhlane rhoqo ngonyaka de babe neminyaka eyi-19 ubudala.

I-Varicella
Ngaphambi kokuba isitofu sokugonya samkelwe ukuba sisetyenziswe ngowe-1995, esi sifo—esidla ngokubizwa ngokuba yirhashalala—nyaka ngamnye sasihlasela abemi baseMerika abamalunga nezigidi ezi-4, salalisa abali-10 000 esibhedlele saza sabulala abali-100 ukusa kwabali-150. Olu gonyo luthintela ama-80 ukusa kuma-90 ekhulwini abantwana ekubeni bafumane esi sifo. Kwabo baye bagonywa kodwa basabambe irhashalala, ugonyo lubonakaliswe ukunciphisa ubunzulu betyala-irhashalala nje embalwa kunye nomkhuhlane ongephi. Eminye imibuzo iye yaphakanyiswa malunga nokuba ugonyo lubonelela ixesha elingakanani na ugonyo. Ngelixa i-CDC inika ingxelo yokuba idatha yaseJapan ibonisa isitofu sokugonya iminyaka engama-25, kukho amaphononongo asendleleni yokumisela ukuba ngaba ukudubula okongeziweyo kuya kufuneka.

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba abantwana bafumana izitofu zabo ngexesha, i-CDC, i-American Academy of Pediatrics kunye ne-Academy of Family Physicians iye yaseka ishedyuli ekhuthazwayo yokudubula.

Ekuzalweni
Hep B

Iinyanga ezi-2
I-Hep B (idosi yesibini kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezi-2 kunye neenyanga ezi-4)
I-Rotavirus
I-DTaP
Hib
I-PVC
Ipoliyo

Iinyanga ezi-4
Rotavirus (idosi yesibini)
DTaP (idosi yesibini)
Hib (idosi yesibini)
PCV (idosi yesibini)
Ipoliyo (ithamo lesibini)

Iinyanga ezi-6
I-Hep B (idosi yesithathu kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezi-6 kunye neenyanga ezili-18)
Rotavirus (idosi yesithathu)
I-DTaP (idosi yesithathu)
PCV (idosi yesithathu)
Ipoliyo (idosi yesithathu kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezi-6 kunye neenyanga ezili-18)
Umkhuhlane (kwaye unikwe minyaka le kude kube neminyaka eyi-19 ubudala)

1 unyaka
I-Hib (idosi yesithathu kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezili-12 kunye neenyanga ezili-15)
I-PCV (idosi yesine kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ze-12 kunye neenyanga ze-15)
I-MMR (idosi yokuqala kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezili-12 kunye neenyanga ezili-15)
I-Varicella (idosi yokuqala kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezili-12 kunye neenyanga ezili-15)
I-Hep A (ukuqala kunyaka o-1, iidosi ezimbini ziyafuneka ubuncinane kwiinyanga ezi-6)

Iinyanga ezili-15
I-DTaP (idosi yesine kufuneka inikwe phakathi kweenyanga ezili-15 nezili-18, ukuba nje ziinyanga ezintandathu emva kwedosi yesithathu)

4 ukuya kwi-6 iminyaka
I-DTaP (idosi yesihlanu)
Ipoliyo (idosi yesine)
MMR (idosi yesibini)
I-Varicella (idosi yesibini)

I-11 ukuya kwi-12 iminyaka
I-HPV (kumantombazana, iidosi ezintathu kufuneka zinikwe kwisithuba seenyanga ezintandathu)

Kwiwebhusayithi ethi AskDrSears.com, uGqr. Sears unikezela ngeshedyuli yakhe yesitofu sokugonya. 'Inkxalabo yam ephambili malunga neshedyuli [yeCDC] kukuba ngenene khange kubekho uphando olwaneleyo kwiikhemikhali ezahlukeneyo kunye nezithako kwizitofu ezininzi zokugonya ukubonisa ukuba zikhuselekile nge-100 lepesenti,' utshilo. 'Kwaye ibe ngamava am ukuba ukunika izitofu zokugonya ezintlanu okanye ezintandathu ngexesha kunokonyusa ukubakho kokuchaphazeleka okumandundu.'

Uthi enye ishedyuli yakhe ayizukuwoyisa amajoni omzimba amancinci, kodwa isabonelela ngokhuseleko olupheleleyo lwesitofu.

Iinyanga ezi-2
I-Rotavirus
I-DTaP

Iinyanga ezi-3
I-PVC
Hib

Iinyanga ezi-4
Rotavirus (idosi yesibini)
DTaP (idosi yesibini)

Iinyanga ezi-5
PCV (idosi yesibini)
Hib (idosi yesibini)

Iinyanga ezi-6
Rotavirus (idosi yesithathu)
I-DTaP (idosi yesithathu)

Iinyanga ezisi-7
PCV (idosi yesithathu)
Hib (idosi yesithathu)

Iinyanga ezili-9
Ipoliyo
Umkhuhlane (kwaye unikwe minyaka le kude kube neminyaka eyi-19 ubudala)

Iinyanga ezili-12
Ipoliyo (ithamo lesibini)
Uqwilikana (ohlulwe kwi-MMR)

Iinyanga ezili-15
I-PCV (idosi yesine)
Hib (idosi yesine)

Iinyanga ezili-18
I-DTaP (idosi yesine)
I-Varicella

iminyaka eyi-2
I-Rubella (yahlulwe kwi-MMR)
Ipoliyo (idosi yesithathu)

2 1/2 iminyaka
Hep B
rhoqo A

3 1/2 iminyaka
I-Hep B (ithamo lesibini)
Imasisi (yahluliwe kwi-MMR)

Iminyaka emi-4
I-DTaP (idosi yesihlanu)
Ipoliyo (idosi yesine)

Iminyaka emi-5
I-MMR (idosi yesibini yesitofu sokugonya ngasinye)

iminyaka emi-6
I-Varicella (idosi yesibini)

Iminyaka eyi-12
HPV

Iminyaka eyi-12, iinyanga ezi-2
I-HPV (idosi yesibini)

Iminyaka eyi-13

I-HPV (idosi yesithathu)
MCV4

Inqaku lika-2009 kwi Unyango lwabantwana , iphephancwadi elisemthethweni leAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, alivumelani noko. Eli nqaku, elinesihloko esithi, 'Ingxaki ngeShedyuli kaGqr. Bob's Alternative Vaccine Schedules,' utsho uGqr. Sears umela kakubi idatha malunga nesayensi yesitofu sokugonya kwaye akachazi abazali. Eli nqaku lifundeka ngolu hlobo: 'Ukholelwa ukuba uloyiko lwabazali lufanele lwenziwe ngokunikela ngolunye ucwangciso, akuchaswanga zizifundo zenzululwazi, yaye uyasilela ukucacisa ukuba inzululwazi efanelekileyo kuphela kwendlela yokugqiba enoba isitofu sokugonya sibangela isiganeko esibi,' lifundeka ngolu hlobo eli nqaku. 'Isitofu sogonyo sinokubangela ingxaki okanye asiyenzi.'

I-American Academy of Pediatrics ithi kwakhona utyelelo olongezelelweyo olufunekayo kugqirha wabantwana-ezintlanu kwishedyuli ye-CDC ngokuchasene neshumi elinesibini kwishedyuli kaDkt Sears ngaphambi kokuba umntwana aguqule iminyaka eyi-2 ubudala-iya kuphazamisa ukugqitywa kwenkqubo yokugonywa.

Ulwazi olukwiwebhusayithi kaGqr. Sears lucebisa ukuba abazali bazifundise. 'Phambi kokuqhubeka neshedyuli epheleleyo yesitofu sokugonya, ndikhuthaza abazali ukuba babe nolwazi olupheleleyo ngesifo ngasinye kunye nesitofu sokugonya ukuze babe nokuqonda eyona ndlela ikhuselekileyo yokugonya abantwana babo.'

Ukuba ubungumzali womntwana omncinci, ngaba ubuya kulandela ucwangciso lweCDC, ucwangciso lukaGqr. Sears okanye ungavumeli naluphi na ugonyo? Yabelana ngoluvo lwakho kwicandelo lamagqabaza apha ngezantsi.

Ipapashiwe09/10/2009

Amanqaku Umdla